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DunedinPACE (or PoAm) Pace of Aging measure: 

Literature reporting findings up to December 2022

The name of the dataset is below each citation. 

Correlates are in bold. 

Raffington, L., Tanksley, P. T., Sabhlok, A., Vinnik, L., Mallard, T., King, L. S., Goosby, B., Harden, K. P., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2022). Socially Stratified Epigenetic Profiles Are Associated With Cognitive Functioning in Children and Adolescents. Psychological Science, 0(0).

Texas Twin Study. 

Etzel, L, et al. Shalev, I. (2022). Obesity and accelerated epigenetic aging in a high-risk cohort of children. Scientific Reports. 12,

The Child Health Study

Kuzawa CW, Ryan CP, Adair LS, Lee NR, Carba DB, MacIsaac JL, Dever K, Atashzay P, Kobor MS, McDade TW. Birth weight and maternal energy status during pregnancy as predictors of epigenetic age acceleration in young adults from metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Epigenetics. 2022 Nov;17(11):1535-1545. doi: 10.1080/15592294.2022.2070105 

Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS Phillipines)

Freni-Sterrantino A, Fiorito G, D’Errico A, Robinson O, Virtanen M, Ala-Mursula L, Järvelin MR, Ronkainen J, Vineis P. Work-related stress and well-being in association with epigenetic age acceleration: A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2022 Feb 2;14(3):1128-1156. doi: 10.18632/aging.203872.

Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

Botong Shen, Ph.D.1, Nicolle A. Mode, M.S.1, Nicole Noren Hooten, Ph.D.1, Natasha L. Pacheco Ph.D.,1, Ngozi Ezike, M.D.1, Alan B. Zonderman, Ph.D.1, and Michele K. Evans, M.D.  (in review 2022). Association of race and poverty status with a faster pace of biological aging. 

The HANDLE Study (NIA intramural study of older adults)

Kim Y, Huan T, Joehanes R, McKeown NM, Horvath S, Levy D, Ma J. Higher diet quality relates to decelerated epigenetic aging. Am J Clin Nutr. 2022 Jan 11;115(1):163-170. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab201.

The Framingham Offspring Study. 

Simons, R. L., Lei, M.-K., Klopach, E., Berg, M., Zhang, Y., & Beach, S. S. R. (2021). (Re)Setting Epigenetic Clocks: An Important Avenue Whereby Social Conditions Become Biologically Embedded across the Life Course. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 62(3), 436–453.

The FACHS Study (Family and Community Health Study of African American Families)

Simons, R., Ong, M., Lei, M., Klopack, E., Berg, M., Zhang, Y., Philibert, R., & Beach, S. Unstable Childhood, Adult Adversity, and Smoking Accelerate Biological Aging Among Middle-Age African Americans: Similar Findings for GrimAge and PoAm. J of Aging and Health 089826432110436. 10.1177/08982643211043668.

The FACHS Study

Simons, Ronald L., Mei Ling Ong, Man-Kit Lei, Eric Klopach, Mark Berg, Yue Zhang, Robert Philibert, Frederick X. Gibbons, Steven R.H. Beach (2022). Shifts in lifestyle and socioeconomic circumstances predict change—for better or worse—in speed of epigenetic aging: A study of middle-aged black women, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 307, 2022, 115175,

The FACHS Study

Beach, S.R.H.; Klopack, E.T.; Carter, S.E.; Philibert, R.A.; Simons, R.L.; Gibbons, F.X.; Ong, M.L.; Gerrard, M.; Lei, M.-K.  (2022) Do Loneliness and Per Capita Income Combine to Increase the Pace of Biological Aging for Black Adults across Late Middle Age? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 13421.

The FACHS Study

Lei MK, Berg MT, Simons RL, Beach SRH. (2022). Neighborhood structural disadvantage and biological aging in a sample of Black middle age and young adults.  Soc Sci Med

The FACHS Study

Yu, Y.-L. (2023). Current Marital Status and Epigenetic Clocks Among Older Adults in the United States: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study. Journal of Aging and Health, 35(1–2), 71–82.

The US Health and Retirement Study

Avila-Rieger, Justina, Indira C. Turney, Jet M.J. Vonk, Precious Esie, Dominika Seblova, Vanessa R. Weir, Daniel W. Belsky, Jennifer J. Manly (2022).  Socioeconomic Status, Biological Aging, and Memory in a Diverse National Sample of Older US Men and Women. 

Neurology 99 (19) e2114-e2124;  DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000201032 

Health and Retirement Study

Graf Gloria H, Christopher L Crowe, Meeraj Kothari, Dayoon Kwon, Jennifer J Manly, Indira C Turney, Linda Valeri, Daniel W Belsky, Testing Black-White Disparities in Biological Aging Among Older Adults in the United States: Analysis of DNA-Methylation and Blood-Chemistry Methods, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 191, Issue 4, April 2022, Pages 613–625,

Health and Retirement Study

Graf Gloria Huei-Jong, Yalu Zhang, Benjamin W Domingue, Kathleen Mullan Harris, Meeraj Kothari, Dayoon Kwon, Peter Muennig, Daniel W Belsky, (2022). Social mobility and biological aging among older adults in the United States, PNAS Nexus, Volume 1, Issue 2, pgac029,

Health and Retirement Study

Kelly E. Rentscher, Eric T. Klopack, Eileen M. Crimmins, Teresa E. Seeman, Steve W. Cole, Judith E. Carroll  (in review). Lower Social Support is Associated with Accelerated Epigenetic Aging: Results from the Health and Retirement Study

medRxiv 2022.06.03.22275977; doi: 

Health and Retirement Study

Schmitz, Lauren L. & Duque, Valentina (2022). In-utero exposure to the Great Depression is reflected in late-life epigenetic aging signatures. PNAS, 119 (46) e2208530119

Health and Retirement Study

Peterson, Mark D. Stacey CollinsHelen C.S. MeierAlexander BrahmsteadtJessica D. Faul (2022). Grip strength is inversely associated with DNA methylation age acceleration. J of Cachexia, sarcopenia, and muscle.

Health and Retirement Study

Schmitz LL, Zhao W, Ratliff SM, Goodwin J, Miao J, Lu Q, Guo X, Taylor KD, Ding J, Liu Y, Levine M, Smith JA. The Socioeconomic Gradient in Epigenetic Ageing Clocks: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Health and Retirement Study. Epigenetics. 2022 Jun;17(6):589-611. doi: 10.1080/15592294.2021.1939479

MESA (Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and the Health and Retirement Study

Reed RG, Carroll JE, Marsland AL, Manuck SB. (2022). DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging and cognitive decline over 16-years: preliminary longitudinal findings in midlife. Aging; 14:9423-9444 .

AHAB Study (Adult Health and Behavior Pittsburgh)

McCrory C, Fiorito G, O’Halloran AM, Polidoro S, Vineis P, Kenny RA. (2022) Early life adversity and age acceleration at mid-life and older ages indexed using the next-generation GrimAge and Pace of Aging epigenetic clocks. Psychoneuroendocrinology. Mar;137:105643. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2021.105643.

TILDA (the Irish Longitudinal Study of Aging)

Kuo, P.-L., Moore, A. Z., Lin, F. R., & Ferrucci, L. (2021). Epigenetic age acceleration and hearing: Observations from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 13, Article 790926.

BLSA (Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging)

Caro, Juan Carlos, Cyrielle Holuka, Giorgia Menta, Jonathan D. Turner, Claus Vögele, Conchita D’Ambrosio, (2023). Children’s internalizing behavior development is heterogeneously associated with the pace of epigenetic aging, Biological Psychology, Volume 176, 2023,


Jesse R. Poganik, Bohan Zhang, Gurpreet S. Baht, Csaba Kerepesi, Sun Hee Yim, Ake T. Lu, Amin Haghani, Tong Gong, Anna M. Hedman, Ellika Andolf, Göran Pershagen, Catarina Almqvist, James P. White, Steve Horvath, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Biological age is increased by stress, and restored upon recovery from stress, BioRxiv, 2022,

Three Clinical Datasets

Michael Safaee, Varun Dwaraka, Justin K. Scheer, Marissa Fury, Tavis Mendez, Ryan Smith, Jue Lin, Dana Smith, Christopher P. Ames, (2022).  Cellular aging for risk stratification in adult deformity surgery: utilization of seven epigenetic clocks and two telomere length measurements in the analysis of comorbidity burden, frailty, disability and complications in adult deformity surgery, The Spine Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Supplement, 2022, Pages S13-S14,

ISSN 1529-9430,

Clinical sample. 

Effect of Long-Term Caloric Restriction on DNA Methylation Measures of Biological Aging in Healthy Adults: CALERIE™ Trial Analysis (2023).  R Waziry, DL Corcoran, KM Huffman, MS Kobor, M Kothari, VB Kraus, WE Kraus, DTS Lin, CF Pieper, ME Ramaker, M Bhapkar, SK Das, L Ferrucci, WJ Hastings, M Kebbe, DC Parker, SB Racette, I Shalev, B Schilling, DW Belsky,  medRxiv 2021.09.21.21263912; doi: 


Sugden, K., A. Caspi, ML Elliott, KJ Bourassa, K Chamarti, DL Corcoran, AR Hariri, RM Houts, Meeraj Kothari, S Kritchevsky, GA Kuchel, J Mill. BS Williams, DW Belsky, TE Moffitt (2022). Association of Pace of Aging measured by blood-based DNA methylation with age related cognitive decline and dementia. Neurology 

ADNI Study (Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), Framingham Offspring Study

Sugden, Karen, Terrie E. Moffitt, Thalida Em Arpawong, Daniel W. Belsky, David L. Corcoran, Eileen M. Crimmins, Eilis Hannon, Renate Houts, Jonathan S. Mill, Richie Poulton, Sandyha Ramrakha, Jasmin Wertz, Benjamin S. Williams, Avshalom Caspi, (in review). Cross-national and cross-generational evidence that educational attainment may slow the pace of aging. J of Gerontology

Health and Retirement Study, Generation Scotland, E-Risk Study, UK Understanding Society, Dunedin Study

Belsky, DW, A Caspi, L Arseneault, Baccarelli, A., D Corcoran, Gao, X, Hannon, HL Harrington, L J Rassmussen, R Houts, K Huffman, WE Kraus, Kwon, D, J Mill, C Pieper, J Prinz, R Poulton, Schwartz, J, K Sugden, Vokonas, P, B Williams, TE Moffitt (2020). Quantification of the pace of biological aging in humans through a blood test: The DunedinPoAm DNA methylation algorithm, eLife

Dunedin Study, Normative Aging Study, E-Risk Study, UK Understanding Society

Belsky, DW, A Caspi, D Corcoran, K Sugden, R Poulton, L Arseneault, A Baccarelli, K Chamarti, X Goa, E Hannon,, HL Harrington, R Houts, M Kotharti, D Kwon, J Mill, J Schwartz, P Vokonas, C Wang, B Williams,  TE Moffitt (2022). DunedinPACE, A DNA methylation biomarker of the Pace of Aging, eLife

Dunedin Study, Normative Aging Study, E-Risk Study, Framingham Heart Study, UK Understanding Society

Bourassa, K. J., Caspi, A., Harrington, H. L., Houts, R. M., Poulton, R., Ramrakha, S., & Moffitt, T. E. (2020). Intimate partner violence and lower relationship quality are associated with faster biological aging. Psychology and Aging

Dunedin Study. 

Ruiz, Begoña, Jonathan M. Broadbent, W. Murray Thomson, Sandhya Ramrakha, Terrie E. Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Richie Poulton. (in review). Childhood caries is associated with poor health and a faster pace of ageing by midlife. 

Dunedin Study

Belsky DW, Caspi A, Cohen HJ, Kraus WE, Ramrakha S, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. (2017). Impact of Early Personal History Characteristics on the Pace of Aging: Implications for Clinical Trials of Therapies to Slow Aging and Extend Healthspan. Aging Cell.  

Dunedin Study

Bourassa, K. J., Moffitt, T. E. Ambler, A., Hariri, A., Harrington, H. L., Houts, R. M., Ireland, D., Knodt, A., Poulton, R., Ramrakha, S., Caspi, A., (2022). Accelerated aging in midlife is antedated by treatable adolescent health conditions. JAMA Pediatrics

Dunedin Study

Meier, Madeline H., Avshalom Caspi, Antony Ambler, Ahmad R. Hariri, HonaLee Harrington, Sean Hogan, Renate Houts, Annchen R. Knodt, Sandhya Ramrakha, Leah Richmond-Rakerd, Richie Poulton Terrie E. Moffitt (2022). Long-term Cannabis Users’ Preparedness for Healthy Aging: A Population-Representative Longitudinal Study. Lancet Healthy Longevity

Dunedin Study

Langevin, S., Caspi, A., Barnes, J.C, Brennan, G., Poulton, R., Purdy, S., Tanksley, P.T., Thorne, P., Wilson, G., & Moffitt, T.E. (2022). Life-course persistent antisocial behavior and accelerated biological aging in a longitudinal birth cohort. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 

Dunedin Study

Bourassa, K. J., Caspi, A., Hall, K. S., Harrington, H. L., Houts, R. M., Kimbrel, N. A., Poulton, R., Ramrakha, S., Taylor, G. A., & Moffitt, T. E. Which measures of stress best predict accelerated biological aging? Comparing perceived stress, stressful life events, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Under review. 

Dunedin Study

Wertz, Jasmin, Avshalom Caspi, Antony Ambler, Jonathan Broadbent, Robert J. Hancox, HonaLee Harrington, Renate M. Houts, Joan H. Leung, Richie Poulton, Suzanne C. Purdy, Sandhya Ramrakha, Line Jee Hartmann Rasmussen, Leah S. Richmond-Rakerd, Peter R. Thorne, Graham A. Wilson, Terrie E. Moffitt, (2021). History of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for accelerated aging: Evidence from a population-representative longitudinal cohort study. JAMA-Psychiatry, 

Dunedin Study

Belsky DW, Caspi A, Houts R, Cohen HJ, Corcoran D, Danese A, Harrington HL, Israel S, Levine ME, Schaefer J, Sugden K, Williams B, Yashin A, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. (2015). Quantification of biological aging in young adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 77, 601-617. 

Dunedin Study

Belsky DW, Moffitt TE, Cohen AA, Corcoran DL, Levine ME, Prinz J, Schaefer J, Sugden K, Williams B, Poulton R, Caspi A. (2017). Eleven telomere, epigenetic clock, and biomarker-composite quantifications of biological aging: Do they measure the same thing? American J of Epidemiology. doi: )

Dunedin Study 

Elliott, Maxwell L. Daniel W. Belsky, Annchen R. Knodt, David Ireland, Tracy R. Melzer, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt, Ahmad R. Hariri (2019) Brain-age in midlife is associated with accelerated biological aging and cognitive decline in a longitudinal birth-cohort.  Molecular Psychiatry, 

Dunedin Study 

Elliott, Max, Avshalom Caspi, RM Houts, A Ambler, JM Broadbent, RJ Hancox, HL Harrinton, S Hogan, R Keenan, A Knodt, JH Leung, TR Melzer, SC Purdy, S Ramrakha, LS Richmond-Rakerd, A Righarts, K Sugden, WM Thomson, PR thorne, BS Williams, G Wilson, AR Hariri, R Poulton, TE Moffitt (2021) Disparities in the pace of biological aging among midlife adults of the same chronological age: Implications for future frailty risk and policy. Nature Aging

Dunedin Study

Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S., Avshalom Caspi, Antony Ambler Tracy d’Arbeloff, Marieke de Bruine, Maxwell Elliott, HonaLee Harrington, Sean Hogan, Renate M. Houts, David Ireland, Ross Keenan, Annchen R. Knodt, Tracy R. Melzer, Sena Park, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Line Jee Hartmann Rasmussen, Elizabeth Sack, Adam T. Schmidt, Maria L. Sison, Jasmin Wertz, Ahmad R. Hariri, & Terrie E. Moffitt (2021). Childhood self-control forecasts the pace of midlife aging and preparedness for old age. PNAS

Dunedin Study.

Rasmussen, LJ, A Caspi, A Ambler, A Danese, M Elliott, J Eugen-olsen, A Hariri, HL Harrington, R Houts, R Poulton, S Ramrakha, K Sugden, B Williams, TE Moffitt. (2020). Association between elevated suPAR, a new biomarker of chronic inflammation, and accelerated aging. Journal of Gerontology, Medical Sciences

Dunedin Study